DotDot – A Universal Language for IOT by ZigBee

One of the biggest hurdles facing the spread of IoT technology is the lack of interoperability between devices from different vendors. To create a fully integrated IoT device network, we are forced to purchase equipment from a single source, that is, the same vendor instead of choosing an array of devices from any vendor ideal for the needs. 

To address the problem described above, the ZigBee Alliance announced the DotDot, a universal language for IoT environment, making possible for smart devices to communicate with each other on any network. The President and CEO of ZigBee Alliance Tobin Richardson had this to say “DotDot represents the next chapter in the ZigBee alliance’s continued commitment to create and evolve open standards for the smart networks in our homes, businesses, and neighborhoods. The application layer that is the core language of ZigBee devices has driven significant growth in the IoT. Recognizing the opportunity to multiply that growth for members and the industry, market leaders within the Alliance have come together to transform it into a universal language for the IoT, making it available to everyone, everywhere, across their network of choice.”

Let’s look at the problem in more detail facing the IoT environment. The wireless connectivity layer for IoT devices differs from vendor to vendor. That makes it impossible for devices from different vendors to talk to each other even if they are on the same network or wireless technology such as IPv6, Bluetooth, Wireless, etc. Currently, the devices using different wireless connectivity layer can only talk to each other through a cloud platform which would require a lot of resources to develop and deploy. Thus, hardly anyone would go forward with it and will instead stick to a single vendor devices using same connectivity layer. When we are forced to make choices based on minimizing the associated development cost and time rather than working towards a more perfect solution, the result is more of often than not a let-down. But economics can’t be ignored in a real world and the right solution to address the problem would allow devices from multiple vendors to talk to each other without the problems associated with the current framework.

Protocol Stack for dotdot. (Courtsey:
Now we will dive deeper into DotDot technology and how it would work. DotDot envisions a future of development environment where single application language would be applicable to multiple types of network. As can be seen from the image above, the network stack may differ but implementing DotDot would allow them to communicate with each other. Since ZigBee and Thread (belongs to Google) network stack are both based on IPv6 technologies, the DotDot protocol can be easily implemented on them. Going forward, other wireless networking technologies such Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Cellular, etc. and even wired technologies such as Ethernet could be integrated to allow development on those network stacks. To sum things up, DotDot is the utilization of ZigBee application objects and data models irrespective of the network.

DotDot is a great first step to expedite the spread of IoT devices. But more needs to be done. ZigBee is not alone in trying to have a universal language. Others such as IOTivity from OCF (Open Connectivity Foundation) are striving to do the same. ZigBee is leading the pack as it already has an existing user base and is the first one of the starting line. But it promises to be a tough race with more players looking to join the fray in next few years. Only time will tell as to who ends up on the top.

Here’s a brief video on the DotDot:

Information Source:

Author : Abhishek Goyanka

Abhishek is currently working as an Engineer in the field of IoT and Embedded Systems. He received his Master's degree from Purdue University and Bachelor's degree from VIT University. He is budding entrepreneur and hopes to start his own venture in field of IoT. In his free time, he enjoys reading about technology, history, geopolitics and world affairs.


BER and SER MATLAB Simulation of Non Square (Rectangular) Constellation QAM [8-QAM] in AWGN Channel

QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) is widely used in physical digital communication systems, such as WiFi enabled devices, etc. Generally, a square constellation of QAM is preferred, that is because these schemes are easy to Modulate and Demodulate. Any QAM constellation can be considered as a combination PAMs, i.e., both square and rectangular QAM can be thought as a combination of PAMs.
According to a study, End-to-End Energy Modeling and Analysis of Long-Haul Coherent Transmission Systems, the error-rate performance of 8-QAM is close to that of 16-QAM (only about 0.5 dB better), but its data rate is only three-quarters that of 16-QAM. These effects can be seen in the code below, by further extending it to compare with other modulation scheme's BER.

The constellation of the 8-QAM (considering gray mapping) in our scheme looks like. Same result of BER/SER will be obtained if the constellation is 90 Degree rotated about the origin (In the code I have done that).
8-QAM Constellation with Gray Mapping
8-QAM Constellation with Gray Mapping
Then I have derived the theoretical SER expression in terms of Q-Functions, which is given below. (Click to expand the derivation)
Derivation is 8-QAM Probability of Symbol Error
Derivation is 8-QAM Probability of Symbol Error
Now in the MATLAB code (below-bolded) of 8-QAM I have simulated BER and SER curve. Additionally Constellation is also plotted.

close all

nbits=3e7; % No. of bits to be generated
M=8;       % for M-ary modulation scheme
nBitsPerSym = log2(M); % Bits per symbol

% For 8-QAM
map=[-1+3j,-1+1j,-1-3j,-1-1j,1+3j,1+1j,1-3j,1-1j]; % Gray Coded Mapping

title('Constellation diagram for Transmitted Symbols');
xlabel('Inphase component');
ylabel('Quadrature component');
axis([-3 3 -3 3]);
sym_map =sqrt(1/6)*map; 
% Normalizing the constellation with its Avg. Symbol Energy
refI = real(sym_map);
refQ = imag(sym_map);

EsN0dB=0:18; % Es/N0 in dB scale
EbN0dB=EsN0dB-10*log10(nBitsPerSym); % Eb/N0 in dB scale

simulatedBER = zeros(1,length(EbN0dB));
theoreticalBER = zeros(1,length(EbN0dB));
theoreticalSER = zeros(1,length(EbN0dB));
symbErrors = zeros(1,length(EbN0dB));

for i=EbN0dB

    % Generating random bits
    % Reshaping to form symbol
    b = inputSymBin*(2.^((nBitsPerSym-1):-1:0)).';
    % Converting bits to symbol
    %M-QAM Constellation mapping through Index Values
    EbN0 = 10.^(i/10); %linear scale
    EsN0 = 10.^(EsN0dB(count)/10); %linear scale
    noiseSigma = sqrt(1./(2*nBitsPerSym*EbN0)); 
    %Sigma for AWGN normalised per bit
    n = noiseSigma*(randn(1,length(s))+1i*randn(1,length(s)))';
    y = s + n; % AWGN addition to signal vector
    demodSymbols = zeros(1,length(y));
    for j=1:length(y)
        %Finding the minimum Eucledian Distance
    % Simulation SER Calculation
    % Symbols to bits
    simulatedBER(count) = bitErrors/nbits;
    % Simulation BER Calculation
    % Theoritical SER
    count=count+1; % Index Update

semilogy(EbN0dB,simulatedBER,'r-*');hold on;
title('BER Vs Eb/N0 (dB) for 8-Ary Modulation');
grid on;
xlabel('Eb/N0 dB');
ylabel('BER - Bit Error Rate');
grid on;
semilogy(EsN0dB,symbErrors,'k-o');hold on;
title('SER Vs Es/N0 (dB) for 8-Ary Modulation');
grid on;
xlabel('Es/N0 dB');
ylabel('SER - Symbol Error Rate');
grid on;
% Code End

The above code furnishes the results as:
SER vs Es/N0 for 8-QAM modulation scheme (The theoritical and simulation result matched for AWGN channel)
SER vs Es/N0 for 8-QAM modulation scheme (The theoretical and simulation result matched for AWGN channel)
BER vs Eb/N0 for 8-QAM modulation scheme (Only Simulation result for AWGN channel)
Author: Vibhutesh Kumar Singh
An active & prominent author at Digital iVision Labs! Like to write about MATLAB, C++, Arduino, OpenCV, NI Labview, Web Designing & other Electronics stuffs! Finished up M.Tech. From IIIT Delhi, now doing PhD in wireless communication with prominent researchers University College Dublin (CONNECT CENTRE). Drop a mail: vibhutesh[at] to ask something about the article or Follow him at....