Robotic Surgery-A Tech Student Viewpoint

Introduction [Brief History]

  • *** The term “robot”  is actually coined by Karel Capek , a Czech playwright in his play Rossum’s Universal Robots in 1921.
  • *** In 1985 a robot ,Puma 560 was used to place a needle for a brain biopsy using CT (Computed Tomography) guidance .
  • ***First Laproscopic surgery was perfomed in 1987 (laproscopic surgery involves operations within the abdominal or pelvic cavities).

So What do you mean by a robotic surgery?
Robotic surgery is a surgery in which the surgeon performs surgery b manipulating the hands of a robot  or any mechanical device that operates automatically with human like skills.

Types of robots In Surgery
**   Re-tractor system
**    Position the tool and then hold
In this type of robot the tool is moved under surgeon command.the tool is used to hold devices such as blades, bieves etc.

In this type of robot the tool as well as the fingers are moved by surgeons command, the fingers are moved as per command to perform the surgery.

Da-Vinci robot
   A robotic  system made by an American company designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach.  Costing around 2.5 million us dollars the robotic system has been used to repair cardiac  valve and for prostrate removals.the future application of Da Vinci robotic system  can be in telesurgery where a surgeon [For Example] sitting in India can perform a surgery on a patient in Antarctica.
Da vinci system schematic
Da-Vinci system schematic

Stereoscopic 3D  Vision

Stereoscopic 3D  Vision
Robotic wrist with six degrees of freedom
Robotic wrist with six degrees of freedom

The robotic system consists of four interactive robotics arms controlled from the console, three of the arms are for the tool that hold objects such as scissors , bovies etc.the fourth arm carries an endoscopic camera with two lenses that gives the surgeon steroscopic vision.

Advantages of robots in surgery
Ø  Shorter hospital stay
Ø  Reduced Trauma to the body
Ø  Less anesthesia
Ø  Less Blood loss
Ø  Less post- operative pain
Ø  Less pain
Ø  Less risk of infection
Ø  Less scarring
Faster recovery and return to daily activities

Ø  The rate of discovery of new technology is outpacing the ability of business, society, and healthcare to integrate and apply
Ø  Robotic surgery is but one example of such technology that MAY reduce operative morbidity, hospital stay, and recovery, while POTENTIALLY improving clinical outcomes.

An Article By 
Ajay Rai
Student @ VIT